RITUALS

The rituals performed by placing the offerings in the natural fissures of the rocks (Ritual pits) and in the Circular stone constructions was probably connected with the cult of fertility and the Great Goddess – Mother, at this time venerated in the form of a rocky peak. The small votive ceramic figurines, representing cattle or parts of human body, were intended to procure good health of both people and livestock.

Votive figurine - Ceramic representation of human foot


The most distinguishable astronomical marker, the so-called “ritual marker” (K), was constructed for the observer sitting on the thrones (platform A). It is located just below the highest part of the locality and positioned to mark the rising of the sun on certain days of the year. The sun’s rays pass through the right edge of the artificially cut trench on the eastern Platform (B) and then through another artificial notch below. As a result, they illuminate just one of the thrones on Platform A in the middle of May (14th or 15th of May) and in the end of July (30th or 31st of July).

The sun illuminates the stone thrones through the ritual marker


The existence of a second equinox marker (observed from Platform D) is an additional confirmation that the builders of the megalith observatory Kokino were familiar with the concept of the equinox. Additionally, the equinox marker was also the marker for the star Aldebaran’s in the years when Platform D was constructed, because Aldebaran’s position was in the equinox point in the 21st century B.C. (2083 B.C.).

Platform A - stone thrones


Just like most of the stars, Aldebaran’s position changed due to its regular movement across the sky and the rotation of Earth’s axis. In the beginning of the second millennium B.C., the heliacal rising (the appearance in the horizon of the observer just before sunrise) of Aldebaran in the middle of May through the equinox marker seen from Platform D and the sunrise through the ritual marker seen from the thrones’ platform, happened on the same morning. As the equinox marker and the ritual marker were built on the same stone block, they are “mutual” for the both Platforms A and D.

The sun sets over Kokino


The illumination of one of the thrones (in middle of May and in the end of July), the appearance of Aldebaran and the Sun on the “mutual” marker, was observed as a part of ritual celebrations which marked the beginning of the new seasons, the renewal of nature and the start of the agricultural work cycles on which the whole community depended.

The double cut-mark (ritual and astronomical) was observed from two different platforms



The sun appears on the equinox cut-mark.

1-5 - Positions where the star Aldebaran appeared between the years 2083 and 1500 B.C.